What is Bromine?
Bromine is chemical element found in the form of inorganic compounds, and in natural organo-bromine compounds in soils, salts, air and seawater. Brominated compounds are mainly used in fire safety. Brominated flame retardants are naturally resistant to ignition and make furniture and plastics less combustive. Since its discovery, bromine and its compounds have also been used in the manufacturing of high performing products used for water treatment, reduction of mercury emissions, oil drilling, energy storage and generation, manufacture of durable rubber, production of pharmaceuticals, and as catalysts for plastic (PTA).
Where can you find bromine?
Bromine is never naturally found in its elemental form but rather in inorganic compounds, also known as bromides, and in natural organo-bromine compounds1. These brominated compounds are found in soils, salts, air and seawater. The most recoverable form of bromine is from soluble salts found in seawater, salt lakes, inland seas and brine wells. Sea water contains bromine in about 65 parts per million (ppm) but bromine is found in much higher concentrations (2,500 to 10,000 ppm) in inland seas and brine wells.
1. Gordon W. Gribble, The diversity of naturally occurring organobromine compounds , Chemical Society Reviews, 1999, http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/1999/CS/a900201d#!divAbstract
How is Bromine extracted?
Around 500,000 tons of bromine are estimated to be produced annually on a worldwide basis. Much of the bromine and brominated compounds are manufactured in the U.S. and the Dead Sea in Israel and Jordan. Bromine is produced from brine after the separation of sodium chloride and potash. The concentration of bromine ions in solutions from the Dead Sea reaches 10-12 g/l. This high concentration of bromine ions makes the production process more efficient.
Where is bromine used?
The largest single use of brominated compounds is in fire safety. Bromine-based fire safety solutions are used to improve resistance to ignition and make furniture and plastics less combustive.
Since its discovery, bromine and its compounds have also been used in the manufacturing of high performing products used for
– Reducing mercury emissions reduction from coal-fired power plants,
– Purifying and disinfecting water
– Manufacturing of rubber tyres, windscreen wipers and medical stoppers
– Ensuring the efficacy of many energy processes and technologies
– Manufacturing pharmaceuticals
What are the effects of bromine?
Since bromine was discovered in 1826, bromine compounds have been used in various fields such as water treatment, reduction of mercury emissions, fire safety, energy storage and generation, production of pharmaceuticals and in the process to enhance the quality of rubber. Bromine is very effective and cost-efficient in all its applications.
How can we transport bromine?
There are specific rules to ensure the safe transportation of bromine (packaging, container,etc.). The shipper (rail, road, and vessel) should ensure that the transport of bromine conforms to all relevant local regulations. The UN Orange Book has been adopted in the various national regulations.
Why is bromine important?
Since bromine was discovered, bromine compounds have been used in various fields making a significant difference.
– It helps reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in a very effective way,
– It is extremely powerful to purify and disinfect water
– It is used in the manufacturing of rubber tyres, windscreen wipers and medical stoppers
to make them more efficient and durable
– It ensures the efficacy of many energy processes and technologies And last but not least,
it is used to enhance the manufacturing process of pharmaceuticals.