Production

The most recoverable form of bromine is from soluble salts found in seawater, salt lakes, inland seas and brine wells.

The most recoverable form of bromine is from soluble salts found in seawater, salt lakes, inland seas and brine wells. Sea water contains bromine in about 65 parts per million (ppm) but bromine is found in much higher concentrations (2,500 to 10,000 ppm) in inland seas and brine wells.

Much of the bromine and brominated compounds are manufactured in the U.S. and at the Dead Sea in Israel and Jordan. Bromine is produced from brine after separation of most of the sodium chloride and potash.

The concentration of bromine ions in solutions from the Dead Sea reaches 10-12 gr/l. This high concentration of bromine ions makes the production process efficient.

A suitable oxidant is needed to obtain bromine from a solution containing bromide ions. The bromine production process is mainly based on the reaction of bromide with chlorine.

The reaction consists in oxidizing bromide ions in aqueous solution to produce elementary bromine:
bromine-illu2
bromine-illu1